This list is extracted from a wood-name list of some 26,000 species and 140,000 common names that I have accumulated over the years.
I have a belief, not yet supported by any serious research, that there are probably only a few dozen pine species in North America that are commonly cut for lumber, but I do not know exactly WHICH species these are. On this site I have broken out only a few pines with separate pages and lumped the rest into just "pine" (which I may change to "pine, misc" at some point. The list presented here is intended to reflect not just the lumber-producing pine species that grow in the USA but ALL pine species that grow in North America, just to give a flavor of what that list looks like.
Some notes/caveats about the species listed here and the common names associated with them.
First, I have removed dozens of species from the genus Pinus and well over 1000 common names. The common names I removed were all, as far as I could tell, names which are only used in countries other than the USA. These were mostly Spanish but also numerous French, German, various Asian languages, and occasional others. The species that were removed were ones which, as far as I could tell with a quick look, do not grow in North America and given the plethora of pines IN North America there seems to be little reason to import them so I assume they are not present for the American woodworker.
It is quite probable that at least some of the common names used in the USA for pine species do not contain the word "pine" in them. My automated processing threw out all such names.
Australian woods with the name "pine" are NOT included
Further, I have no idea if perhaps some (or even many) of the species presented here are not lumber-producing species. I am sure that some of them are small enough and/or misshapen enough that they are not used for lumber but I don't know which ones. I am also fairly confident (although this is not based on research) that there are probably on a few dozen pine species in North America that produce the pine lumber commonly used here, so many of the species listed here are not likely to be readily available to you.
Lastly, I do NOT believe that this list is comprehensive, even given the caveats above, but it will give a strong sense of the number of pine species that grow in the USA and the huge number of common names that are associated with them.
Apologies for the inappropriate lack of capitalization on the Genus name throughout and on the proper names such as "california".